Pourquoi il n’y a beaucoup de femmes inventeurs dans le monde ?

Pourquoi il n’y a beaucoup de femmes inventeurs dans le monde ?

Il est facile d’énumérer quelques-uns des nombreux articles de tous les jours inventés et brevetés par les femmes – le lave-vaisselle, les essuie-glaces, le jeu de société Monopoly, pour n’en nommer que quelques-uns – mais le monde ne tire toujours pas pleinement parti des idées novatrices des femmes, selon un rapport.
Les femmes inventeurs représentent un peu moins de 13 % des demandes de brevets dans le monde, selon une étude réalisée par l’Office de la propriété intellectuelle du Royaume-Uni, soit une femme inventeur pour sept hommes.
Et bien que la proportion des demandes de brevets augmente, au rythme actuel, elle n’atteindra pas la parité entre les sexes avant 2070.

Alors, pourquoi y a-t-il si peu de femmes dans le monde de l’invention ?

Les chercheurs attribuent cet écart à un manque de femmes travaillant dans les sciences, la technologie, l’ingénierie et les mathématiques (Stem). Selon Penny Gilbert, associée du cabinet d’avocats Powell & Gilbert, il s’agit simplement d’une problème de pipeline.
« Si nous voulons qu’un plus grand nombre de femmes déposent des brevets, il faut qu’un plus grand nombre de femmes entreprennent des études à l’université et fassent carrière dans la recherche « , dit-elle.
Actuellement, environ un quart seulement de la main-d’œuvre britannique dans les industries dans les Stem est féminine et moins de filles et de femmes étudient ces matières dans l’enseignement secondaire et universitaire, malgré les efforts déployés pour diagnostiquer et résoudre ce déséquilibre.
Les deux tiers des équipes sont encore entièrement masculines.
Les brevets sont accordés au propriétaire d’une invention, ce qui permet au créateur et aux propriétaires subséquents d’empêcher d’autres personnes d’utiliser son invention.
Pour être qualifié de brevet d’ « invention », le dépôt doit contenir une idée nouvelle et utile – qui ne serait pas évidente pour une personne compétente dans ce domaine.
Ils peuvent être déposés individuellement ou par des équipes d’inventeurs.

Malala admise à l’université d’Oxford
Bouchra Nassir Ousselat, l’une des rares Tchadiennes dans l’informatique

La disparité entre les sexes parmi les inventeurs est encore plus marquée si l’on tient compte du fait que la plupart des inventeurs de sexe féminin sont des femmes seules au sein d’une équipe à prédominance masculine.
Diagramme à barres montrant que plus des deux tiers des équipes sont entièrement masculines et que seulement 6 % des équipes sont entièrement féminines.
Plus des deux tiers de tous les brevets proviennent d’équipes entièrement masculines ou d’inventeurs individuels masculins – et seulement 6 % d’inventeurs individuels féminins.
Les équipes entièrement féminines sont quasiment inexistantes, ne représentant que 0,3 % des candidatures, selon l’introduction en bourse.
Même lorsqu’elles déposent une demande de brevet, les femmes peuvent être moins susceptibles de les recevoir, selon une étude sur les demandes de brevet américaines réalisée par des chercheurs de l’Université Yale. Ils ont constaté que les demandeurs dont le nom était manifestement féminin étaient moins susceptibles de voir leur brevet appris

Sibahle, le génie des maths

Et bien sûr, tous ceux qui participent à une invention ne sont pas crédités d’un brevet.
Dans l’ensemble, les femmes scientifiques ont deux fois moins de chances d’obtenir un brevet pour leurs recherches, selon une étude précédente de l’Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle, ce qui suggère que les femmes sont moins susceptibles que les hommes de penser à commercialiser leurs inventions.
Les biotechnologies sont les biotechnologies les plus égalitaires entre les sexes
En 1991, Ann Tsukamoto a mis au point une méthode pour isoler les cellules souches. Son innovation a mené à de grands progrès dans la compréhension des systèmes sanguins des patients atteints de cancer et pourrait mener à la découverte d’un remède contre cette maladie.
Le Dr Tsukamoto, qui mène actuellement d’autres recherches sur la croissance des cellules souches, est également le cotitulaire de plus de sept autres inventions.
Illustration de Ann Tsukamoto et la boîte de PetriCopyright de l’imageHANNAH EACHUS
La biotechnologie, c’est-à-dire l’utilisation d’organismes vivants pour fabriquer des produits utiles comme les médicaments et les aliments, est le secteur qui compte le plus grand nombre d’inventrices. Environ 53 % des brevets liés à la biotechnologie ont au moins une inventrice.
En deuxième lieu, 52 % des brevets pharmaceutiques ont au moins une inventrice.
Le génie électrique se situait au bas de la liste, avec moins d’une demande sur dix ayant au moins une femme inventeur.

Parité d’ici 2070

La proportion de femmes inventeurs a doublé au cours des 20 dernières années, selon l’IPO, passant de seulement 6,8% en 1998 à 12,7% en 2017, la dernière année pour laquelle des données complètes sont disponibles.
Graphique montrant que la proportion de femmes inventeurs est passée à 12,7%.
Au cours de la même période, la proportion de demandes désignant au moins une femme parmi les inventeurs est passée de 12% à 21%.
Mme Gilbert dit qu’il faut s’attaquer aux stéréotypes concernant les choix d’éducation et de carrière des femmes – en encourageant les femmes à choisir les domaines de Stem, en introduisant des programmes de mentorat et en célébrant les modèles féminins de rôle.
« Nous devrions applaudir le fait que certains des plus grands scientifiques et inventeurs de l’histoire ont été des femmes – de Marie Curie et Rosalind Franklin à Grace Hopper, inventrice de la programmation informatique, en passant par Stephanie Kwolek, l’inventrice du Kevlar, dit-elle.
« On devrait raconter leurs histoires. »

La Russie en tête de liste

Bien que le nombre de femmes inventeurs au Royaume-Uni, par exemple, ait augmenté, passant de 8 % en 1998 à 11 % en 2017, d’autres pays sont en bonne voie.
Avec 17% des demandes de brevets dont au moins une femme au cours des 20 dernières années, la Russie a eu la plus forte proportion d’inventrices, sur les 10 pays ayant déposé le plus de demandes de brevets, suivie de la France.
Au Japon et en Corée du Sud, moins d’une demande de brevet sur 20 comprenait une femme inventeur pendant cette même période.

Comment les données ont-elles été recueillies ?

Le sexe des inventeurs n’étant généralement pas pris en compte dans les demandes de brevet, l’OPI a déduit leur sexe à partir des prénoms des inventeurs, à partir des données de la base de données statistique mondiale des brevets (PATSTAT) de l’Office européen des brevets.
Les noms des inventeurs ont été appariés à un sexe en utilisant les données de naissance de l’Office for National Statistics du Royaume-Uni et de la US Social Security Administration, qui répertorie les noms de tous les bébés nés et le nombre d’entrées masculines et féminines, ainsi qu’en consultant les profils Facebook pour créer une liste plus large de noms et leur sexe probable.

Seuls les noms pour lesquels au moins 95 % des entrées étaient des noms masculins ou féminins ont été inclus, de sorte que les noms non sexistes tels que « Robin » ont été exclus.
Au total, 75 % des noms d’inventeurs ont été appariés à un sexe, bien que ce taux de réussite varie d’un pays à l’autre. Les listes de noms utilisées étaient biaisées en faveur des noms occidentaux, de sorte que le Royaume-Uni a le « taux de réussite » le plus élevé, tandis que les pays d’Asie de l’Est, y compris la Corée du Sud et la Chine, ont un taux inférieur.

Source : BBC

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L’UFCM a constaté depuis quelques mois l’accroissement des tromperies à la « roqya ». Les témoignages de personnes victimes de ces pratiques se multiplient et présentent les mêmes caractéristiques : « Une personne vous appelle et vous propose une séance de « roqya » gratuite. Cette personne vous propose de rappeler un numéro prétendu gratuit, souvent un numéro commençant par 0 800… » Mais, dans les faits, cette prestation est loin d’être gratuite, puisque la conversation est facturée à vos frais et à votre insu. Au-delà de l’aspect juridique qui est traité à ce jour par le pôle juridique de l’UFCM[1], ce procédé soulève la problématique de sa conformité au Coran et à la Sunna. En effet, la « roqya » peut se définir comme une thérapie qui permet de soigner les actes de sorcellerie, de mauvais œil et également de se protéger contre ces derniers. Par conséquent, est-il possible de la pratiquer par téléphone et quelles sont les exigences édictées par le Coran et la Sunna ? Nous présenterons ainsi successivement les conditions liées au soignant (I), les exigences relatives à l’environnement où est réalisée la « roqya » (II). Nous aborderons ensuite la question de la gratuité de la prestation ou de sa contrepartie financière et enfin les conditions dans laquelle elle est réalisée (III). I- Les conditions liées au soignant Souvent la « roqya » est perçue comme une pratique dispensée par un tiers. Or, il est essentiel de rappeler et de souligner un fait important : la meilleure des « roqya » est celle que nous dispensons nous-mêmes à travers le « dhikr » et la récitation du Coran. Ainsi, pour se prémunir des maux liés au mauvais œil ou à la sorcellerie, il convient régulièrement de lire le Coran et faire des invocations notamment celles du matin et du coucher, de réciter régulièrement la sourate « La vache », de renouveler son intention, de placer la certitude dans son cœur, d’effectuer ses prières etc., et surtout de demander à Allah la meilleure des protections. Toutefois, dans certaines conditions, il est nécessaire de recourir à un soignant. C’est à ce stade qu’il convient d’être vigilant. Il ne suffit pas de se rendre auprès d’une personne qui se présente avec la qualité de cheikh ou d’imam pour accepter de lui confier cette pratique. Comme pour tout procédé et encore plus lorsque cela relève de considérations religieuses, il est important de bien choisir son soignant car ce dernier est tenu de posséder des qualités bien affirmées. La maîtrise du Coran et des traditions prophétiques en la matière est une condition sine qua none, mais insuffisante. La personne doit également avoir des notions de psychologie afin de déterminer la part de sorcellerie et celle de troubles psychologiques fréquents chez les patients. La personne doit posséder une bonne hygiène de vie, notamment spirituelle puisqu’il n’est pas inutile de rappeler que le succès de la « roqya » dépend de Dieu. Ces critères sont difficilement évaluables, surtout par une personne qui est affectée par un mal-être, quelle que soit sa source. C’est pourquoi les proches doivent accompagner la personne dans la recherche d’un soignant qualifié et reconnu comme tel par des référents religieux de la localité (imam, responsables associatifs, etc.). De manière générale, le soignant doit posséder des qualités déterminées que nous pouvons synthétiser de la manière suivante. Il doit : être en capacité de lire le Coran, croire avec certitude au Coran, être empreint de piété, connaître les pièges et les caractéristiques du diable et des djinns, connaître la méthode prophétique de la « roqya », disposer de connaissances de base en psychologie, avoir la conviction que le succès de sa thérapie dépend de Dieu. A l’exception de la première exigence, il semble difficile de vérifier les autres conditions dans le cadre d’un entretien téléphonique avec une personne que nous n’avons jamais rencontrée, même si elle se présente sous le titre de « cheikh » ou d’un imam. Par conséquent, ces conditions soulignent une première limite quant au recours à la « roqya » par téléphone. Par ailleurs, à l’instar de tout médecin, le soignant doit, avant de prodiguer des conseils ou une médication, procéder à une consultation. Ainsi, un environnement adéquat est indispensable pour la réalisation d’une « roqya ». Il est enfin inconcevable qu’un médecin puisse vous affirmer par téléphone connaître votre maladie et attester pouvoir vous guérir. Vous auriez plus que des doutes sur ce prétendu médecin. II- Un environnement propice et la réalisation d’une consultation préalable à la réalisation d’une « roqya » Il est intéressant de noter que, dans son ouvrage « Comment se protéger des djinns & satan », Wahîd ‘Abdussalâm Bâli évoque l’importance du climat pour réaliser une roqya[2]. Ainsi, il expose les points suivants : « 1. Préparer le climat adéquat en faisant par exemple sortir les images et les statues de la pièce où on va soigner le malade, pour permettre aux anges d’y entrer. 2. Débarrasser le sujet de tout ce qu’il peut porter sur lui comme talismans ou amulettes et les brûler. 3. Éteindre tout ce qui peut émettre le son de la musique et des chants. 4. Vider le lieu de tout ce qui comporte une infraction à la shari‘a à savoir, par exemple, la présence d’un homme qui porte de l’or ou une femme qui ne porte pas le voile légal – al-hijab. 5. Donner au malade et à sa famille une leçon de dogme de façon à ce que leurs cœurs ne soient pas attachés à un autre qu’Allah. 6. Leur faire savoir que la façon de soigner est différente de celle des sorciers et des charlatans et que le Coran recèle guérison et miséricorde, comme l’a informé Allah le Puissant et le Majestueux. 7. Diagnostiquer son cas : pour cela poser des questions au malade pour s’assurer de la présence de tous les symptômes (…) ». Or, dans les témoignages communiqués, l’interlocuteur qui se présente comme soignant ne pose aucune question aux personnes. Il débute ainsi la « roqya » directement par une récitation du Coran. En outre, il est intéressant de souligner que dans l’un des témoignages communiqués à l’UFCM, l’interlocuteur demandait à la personne de remplir successivement des verres de lait, d’huile, d’eau etc. et de les poser par la suite sur la table de la salle à manger. Au point que la personne s’est retrouvée avec une multitude de verres posés sur la table. Le comble est que la personne ignorait ce qu’elle devait en faire lorsqu’elle a pris conscience de la tromperie. Nous constatons par conséquent qu’une « roqya » ne peut être réalisée dans un environnement quelconque. En effet, une procédure de diagnostic est essentielle. Nous pouvons à titre d’exemple faire le parallèle avec un rendez-vous chez le médecin ; ce dernier ne peut vous prescrire une ordonnance sans au préalable vous avoir ausculté et interrogé sur les différents symptômes que vous ressentez physiquement. A défaut, au lieu de guérir vous allez aggraver vos maux. Cette attitude vigilante du médecin traitant doit se retrouver lorsque nous envisageons le recours à une « roqya ». Pour illustrer ce propos, nous citerons l’exemple de l’anthropologue, spécialiste de l’islam européen, Farid El Asri, chercheur associé au Centre Jacques Berque, qui nous rapporte une situation alarmante suite à une « roqya » : « Une jeune femme en Belgique (…) est morte suite à une tentative d’exorcisme. Pendant les séances, les fkihs (imams) utilisent normalement de l’eau « coranisée ». Pour cette jeune femme, prétendument stérile, les exorcistes ont carrément plongé son visage dans l’eau et quand elle tentait d’en sortir pour respirer, les guérisseurs estimaient qu’il s’agissait du jinn qui l’habitait et ils replongeaient son visage dans l’eau. Pendant le procès, la famille de la défunte s’est présentée comme musulmane et a accusé ces pratiques d’être extérieures à l’islam quand les guérisseurs estimaient qu’ils avaient simplement fait ce qu’ils pouvaient. Le fait de recourir trop systématiquement au fkih risque également de faire passer une crise d’épilepsie, par exemple, pour une crise de possession. »[3] Nous allons aborder enfin la dernière problématique, celle relative aux honoraires du soignant. III- Les honoraires du soignant Le Prophète, bénédictions et salut sur lui, « a agréé les Compagnons qui ont été payés pour la roqya ». Il est dès lors autorisé de rémunérer un soignant en contrepartie d’une prestation. Toutefois, cette rémunération doit être raisonnable et surtout clairement définie avant le traitement. En outre, nous ne pouvons que souligner et rappeler que, si la roqya est réalisée dans un cadre sérieux, il convient de procéder à toutes les déclarations administratives. Comme pour tout contrat, vous devez exiger un document écrit et le praticien doit préciser quels sont ses engagements exacts afin d’éviter tout litige postérieur. Malheureusement, tous les témoignages transmis à l’UFCM soulignent que l’interlocuteur insiste à plusieurs reprises sur la gratuité de la prestation. Or, dans les faits, cette dernière est payante puisque le coût de la communication est surtaxé. Ainsi, l’une des victimes qui nous a contacté, s’est retrouvée avec une facture téléphonique (hors forfait) de 1800 euros. Par conséquent, nous constatons que ces « roqyas » gratuites sont fondées sur la technique dite du « call-back » qui consiste à amener une personne à rappeler un numéro surtaxé, information qui lui est bien évidemment dissimulée. Une « roqya » peut être payante à condition de respecter un cadre prédéterminé, fondé sur l’information et la transparence des honoraires. En conclusion A la lumière des développements susvisés, l’UFCM appelle d’une part à une régulation du métier de la pratique de la « roqya », d’autre part, à la vigilance de chacun à ne pas céder à la tentation d’une « roqya » qui ne serait pas réalisée dans les conditions requises et qui pourrait produire des effets inverses. Au-delà du cadre spirituel ou juridique, les divers témoignages reçus et étudiés par l’UFCM ne peuvent pas nous laisser indifférents à la question suivante : pourquoi des personnes sont-elles amenées à accepter aussi facilement une « roqya » par téléphone ? Est-ce la gratuité qui a déterminé leur choix ? Certes le mal-être produit par cette société est de plus en plus grand. Nous vivons une époque où les êtres sont de plus en plus coupés des signes de Dieu et vivent un rythme de vie effréné. Ces affaires sont révélatrices des maux les plus profonds qui touchent la communauté musulmane. Par ailleurs, comme l’ensemble des rites islamiques (hajj, halal, pompes funèbres) censés nous rappeler les limites qui déterminent la voie vers Dieu, nous constatons que leur marchandisation trahit de plus en plus leur vocation première. Suffit-il qu’un interlocuteur se présente à nous comme un « cheikh » ou un imam et qu’il nous propose une « roqya » gratuite pour l’accepter aussitôt Ne devrions-nous pas tous nous interroger sur le fait qu’il y ait des musulmanes et des musulmans aussi isolés et aussi ignorants de leur propre religion pour être trompés aussi facilement ? Sommes-nous devenus si dépendants des Hommes que nous en oublions de nous adresser directement à Dieu pour solutionner nos malaises ? Autant de questions que chacun d’entre nous a la responsabilité de se poser. En effet, aucun de nous ou de nos proches ne sont à l’abri d’une telle tromperie. Il convient enfin de rappeler que la « roqya » est un remède précis et qu’elle ne peut se faire que sous certaines conditions et surtout qu’elle demeure l’exception à la règle, qui est de toujours s’adresser directement à Dieu. Avant de recourir à une « roqya », il convient de faire une introspection sur ses propres pratiques cultuelles et de revenir.

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